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The KRASA LAW, Inc. Estate Planning Blog

Wednesday, November 21, 2012

"Kyle's Famous Legal Lessons"

My parents were educators. My mother taught at Bay View Elementary School in Monterey for over twenty-five years and my father was a school principal and administrator in the Monterey Peninsula Unified School District. For a period of time, I thought of following in their footsteps with my own twist by becoming a college English professor, before I instead decided to go to law school. However, when I started practicing law, I realized that my “teaching genes” were quite helpful in explaining complex legal principles to my clients and to the public.

Early in my legal career, I presented estate planning seminars throughout the Monterey Peninsula and Salinas Valley. Based upon the questions and feedback I received from the seminar audiences, I honed my skills in “teaching” the law to non-lawyers. I carried these skills back to my office where I would further explain legal concepts in greater detail to my clients in private meetings using the teacher’s tool, the whiteboard. Over time, I created certain routine “lessons” that my clients really appreciated and understood.

I developed a philosophy that it was important to have a balanced approach to sharing legal information with my clients and the public. One extreme is the traditional approach to law where attorneys believe that the details are far too complex to explain to non-lawyers and they instead make various drafting choices for their clients without bothering to describe the various options available. The other extreme is pseudo legal online services or “legal guide products” that claim to be able to allow a client to take a “do-it-yourself” approach that oversimplifies the law, attempts to put tools in the hands of the public without adequate guidance, and is doomed to fail.

The law is far too complex to encourage non-lawyers to draft their own legal documents. Years of legal education, the preparation for and passage of the Bar Exam, and years of practice cannot be transported to a non-lawyer through a packaged “legal guide.” At the same time, having a legal background is not necessary to understand legal concepts in general terms to be able to make intelligent choices about one’s legal options with the guide of a qualified attorney. The key for the attorney is to avoid attempting to teach a law school course by putting on airs and using unnecessary legal vocabulary, while at the same time understanding what non-lawyers do not know but respecting their intelligence to grasp legal concepts in general terms.

The routine whiteboard “lessons” that I created provide this balanced approach to explaining complex legal principles in an easy-to-understand manner. In an effort to make these legal principles more accessible to the general public, I filmed my most common “legal lessons” and posted the videos on my website (www.krasalaw.com) under the heading, “Kyle’s Famous Legal Lessons.” The videos can be used by the general public to learn more about estate planning, by my clients to reinforce what I might have explained during a client meeting, and for other advisors such as tax preparers and financial planners to be able to share legal concepts with their clients.

These videos are not designed to take the place of legal advice but rather to provide a general introduction to estate planning concepts. Because the law is complex, everybody’s situation is different, and because in short segments important details must be left out, it is important to work with a qualified licensed attorney before acting on any of the information provided in the “legal lesson” videos. The idea is to give some legal familiarity to non-lawyers so that they can be prepared to discuss their estate planning wishes when they meet with their attorneys.


Friday, November 2, 2012

Would Your Kids Pass the Marshmallow Test?

When I was a kid, my absolute favorite stories were from the Frog and Toad series by Arnold Lobel.  I am so thrilled that my two-year-old son inherited my passion for the stories about the two special friends.  In fact, this year we decided to dress up as Frog and Toad for Halloween (my son assigned me the role of Toad – I’m trying not to read into this too much). 

One of our favorite Frog and Toad stories is entitled, “Cookies.”  In the story, Toad makes the most delicious cookies and invites Frog over to enjoy some.  They keep eating the cookies over and over again.  At one point, they both agree that they should stop eating cookies otherwise they’ll be sick.  They keep vowing that they will have “one last cookie” but continue to eat more (my son and I both relate to this scenario).  Frog mentions that they need willpower.  When Toad inquires as to what is willpower, Frog explains that “willpower is trying hard not to do something you really want to do.”  Toad asks, “You mean like trying hard not to eat all of these cookies?”  They devise various schemes to keep the cookies out of their reach but eventually decide to remove the temptation altogether by giving them away to the birds. 

This story reminded me of a famous study from the 1960s about willpower and children.  Instead of cookies, the study involved marshmallows.  Stanford psychologist Walter Mischel would leave young children in a room alone with one marshmallow.  The children were told that they could eat the marshmallow but if they waited until the researcher returned, they would be allowed to eat two marshmallows.  Some children ate the lone marshmallow right away while other children were able to wait until the researcher returned, often 15 or 20 minutes later. 

Mischel checked in on the children as they grew up and discovered remarkable results.  Those children who exhibited willpower in the study turned out to be more independent, had higher salaries, were more respected in their communities, and generally led happier lives.  The researchers believed that willpower is not an inherited trait but rather a skill that can be developed.

Estate planning attorneys took note of the results.  If willpower – or delayed gratification – leads to happier, more successful lives, can there be a way to instill this value in children through an estate plan?  Inheriting an estate without any limitations does not teach delayed gratification: sudden wealth without any capacity to responsibly manage it can lead to ruin.  However, if an estate plan creates incentives for children to become responsible adults, they will develop willpower which will give them the tools to create successful and meaningful lives and allow them to manage wealth responsibly. 

Often such estate plans will identify certain “benchmarks” such as attaining a Bachelor’s Degree, attaining a graduate or professional degree, attaining gainful employment, or performing community service.  For each “benchmark” achieved, the estate plan will distribute cash or other assets as a reward for these accomplishments.  This method of eschewing an “all at once” inheritance by transferring wealth in increments and linking the transfer of wealth to self-attained achievements creates a delayed gratification scenario that trains the children to develop willpower and hopefully lead happier and more successful lives. 

Perhaps a good way to determine if your children need this kind of plan is to leave them alone in a room with a cookie or a marshmallow and see if they can resist the temptation.  This experiment might even be more revealing if your children are adults!

If you’d like something to lift your spirits, take a two minute break and watch an updated version of the Marshmallow Test at this Youtube link.


Friday, October 26, 2012

Kyle A. Krasa Wins "Golden Pine Cone" for "Best Estate Planning Attorney"

Earlier this month, a poll of the 10,500 e-subscribers of the Carmel Pine Cone was conducted asking respondents to vote on what businesses should win "Golden Pine Cone" awards for being the best in their fields.  The winners were announced in the October 26-November 1, 2012 edition of the Carmel Pine Cone.

We are pleased to announce that Kyle A. Krasa / KRASA LAW won a 2012 Golden Pine Cone as the "Best Estate Planning Attorney."

Kyle knows that this award would not be possible without a wonderful staff, great clients, supportive colleagues, and dedicated readers of this blog. 

Thank you to everyone! 

Link to "Golden Pine Cone" special section


Tuesday, October 23, 2012

Reminder: Free Advanced Estate Planning Seminar

The Estate and Gift Tax laws are scheduled to dramatically change on January 1, 2013 unless Congress acts.  Many advisors are recommending that clients make plans now to take advantage of a special and historic opportunity.  However, with all planning opportunities, there are cons as well as pros.

To learn about the changes in the Estate and Gift taxes and the advantages and disadvantages of planning now, attend our free live seminar entitled, "Opportunities and Clawbacks - Taking Advantage of the Once-in-a-Lifetime 2012 Estate / Gift Tax Rules."

The seminar will be held on Saturday, October 27, 2012 from 10:00 am to 11:30 am at 700 Jewell Avenue, Pacific Grove.  Local attorney Kyle A. Krasa will be presenting.  There will also be a Certified Public Accountant and a Financial Advisor on hand to answer all of your questions.

Who should attend: those with estate planning, those without estate planning, and professional advisors with clients who might benefit from this historic planning opportunity.

The seminar is free and complimentary refreshments will be served.

Please RSVP to KRASA LAW at 831-920-0205.


Friday, October 19, 2012

National Estate Planning Awareness Week

In 2008, Congress designated the third week of October as “National Estate Planning Awareness Week.”  The reason for this designation is that most Americans do not have an adequate plan in place to handle disability or death.  It is common to assume that one does not need a plan or that one’s situation is “simple” and that comprehensive estate planning is unnecessary or only for the “wealthy.”  However, the complex inheritance laws, tax rules and regulations, and unique dynamics that are created when death and money mix can make even the “simplest” situation spiral out of control.  Furthermore, there is a lot more to planning that simply transferring “wealth.”  Below is a list of common estate planning documents that most people should have in place.

Revocable Living Trust.  This is the foundational document for most estate plans.  Upon either disability or death, a Revocable Living Trust allows persons you designate (“successor trustees”) to easily take control of your assets and to follow your instructions about what should be done.  During disability, your successor trustees will be able to pay your bills and make sure that your financial needs are handled properly.  Upon death, your successor trustees will be able to settle your estate without court involvement and distribute your assets to your beneficiaries on terms and conditions that you establish.

Funding Documents.  In order for your Revocable Living Trust to be effective, your assets (other than retirement plans, life insurance, and annuities) should be titled to your trust.  Double check your bank statements, financial statements, stocks, bonds, and deeds to real property to make sure that your trust – and not you as an individual – is the registered owner. 

Beneficiary Designations.  Retirement plans, life insurance, and annuities are typically not titled to your trust while you are living.  As such, you should make sure that the “designated beneficiaries” for these assets are up-to-date and coordinated with your overall estate plan.  If you do not have a copies of your Beneficiary Designations, ask your financial institutions for copies and keep them with your estate planning documents.

Pour Over Will.  Even if you have a Revocable Living Trust, you should also have a Pour Over Will.  The will names your trust as the beneficiary for any assets that are not titled to the trust or do not have designated beneficiaries.  Although it’s better to have all your assets titled to your trust, a Pour Over Will can handle assets that you neglected or forgot to title to your trust.

Durable General Power of Attorney.  A Durable General Power of Attorney designates someone to handle matters for you during a period of disability (an “agent”).  Your agent will be able to handle any assets during disability that are not titled to your trust.  In addition, your agent will be able to sign tax returns on your behalf, have access to your mail, and deal with Medicare, Social Security, and other government agencies. 

Advance Health Care Directive.  Your Advance Health Care Directive performs two key functions.  First, it gives authority to someone you choose to make health care decisions for you during a period of disability.  Second, it allows you to express your wishes as far as how that person should make such decisions.

HIPAA Waiver.  HIPAA is a law that, among other things, protects your medical privacy.  It prevents health care providers from disclosing your health information to third parties.  This can become a problem when your successor trustees, your power of attorney agents, or your health care agents need to know your condition in order to carry out your plan.  A HIPAA Waiver authorizes health care providers to disclose your health information to certain individuals you designate.  

For “National Estate Planning Awareness Week,” take the time to consider these documents listed above.  If you do not have any of the documents, think about whether you might need them.  If you already have these documents in place, take the time to review them to make sure they are up to date.  A qualified attorney can help navigate you through the process.


Wednesday, October 10, 2012

Free Advanced Estate Planning Seminar

The Estate and Gift Tax laws are scheduled to dramatically change on January 1, 2013 unless Congress acts.  Many advisors are recommending that clients make plans now to take advantage of a special and historic opportunity.  However, with all planning opportunities, there are cons as well as pros.

To learn about the changes in the Estate and Gift taxes and the advantages and disadvantages of planning now, attend our free live seminar entitled, "Opportunities and Clawbacks - Taking Advantage of the Once-in-a-Lifetime 2012 Estate / Gift Tax Rules."

The seminar will be held on Saturday, October 27, 2012 from 10:00 am to 11:30 am at 700 Jewell Avenue, Pacific Grove.  Local attorney Kyle A. Krasa will be presenting.  There will also be a Certified Public Accountant and a Financial Advisor on hand to answer all of your questions.

Who should attend: those with estate planning, those without estate planning, and professional advisors with clients who might benefit from this historic planning opportunity.

The seminar is free and complimentary refreshments will be served.

Please RSVP to KRASA LAW at 831-920-0205.


Monday, October 8, 2012

The Most Important Moment for Estate Planning?

As a prominent attorney recently stated, “If you love rollercoasters, there are only two places to go: Cedar Point in Sandusky, Ohio, or a visit to your estate planner.” The laws concerning the estate tax (also known as the “inheritance tax” or “death tax”) have been in flux for over a decade. The estate tax is a tax on inheritance. The bad news is that the estate tax rate has ranged in recent years from 35% to 55%. The good news is that not all inheritances are subject to tax. Each individual has an estate tax exemption. The exemption is the amount of inheritance that you can exclude from the estate tax. For decedents dying in 2002, the exemption was $1,000,000. In 2004, the exemption increased to $1,500,000, then to $2,000,000 in 2006, and to $3,500,000 in 2009. The exemption was unlimited (which is another way of saying there was no estate tax) in 2010.

In 2011, the exemption was scheduled to take a huge dip, reverting back to $1,000,000. In December of 2010, Congress passed and President Obama signed legislation that created a temporary increase in the exemption to $5,000,000 in 2011 and $5,120,000 in 2012. However, without further legislation, the exemption will automatically drop to $1,000,000 on January 1, 2013.

In addition to the estate tax, there is a gift tax. The idea behind the gift tax is to prevent taxpayers from avoiding the estate tax by giving away their assets during life. Although there are many caveats and exceptions, the general rule is that each lifetime gift reduces the estate tax exemption dollar for dollar. For example, if you give away $100,000 during life, your estate tax exemption is reduced by $100,000. Furthermore, if you make a gift that is in excess of your estate tax exemption, you owe gift tax.

With these general rules in mind, many estate planners are advocating making gifts now, prior to January 1, 2013. The idea is to take advantage of the much higher estate (and gift) tax exemption that is currently available before the window of opportunity closes. The pros of this course of action are obvious. Right now, you can gift away much more than you will be able to in 2013, which will reduce the size of your estate upon death.

There are cons to this kind of planning as well. For one, you must be comfortable with the concept of gifting. If you do not want to – or can’t afford to – part with certain assets, then this kind of planning might not be a good fit for you. Secondly, if the estate tax exemption really does drop to $1,000,000 in 2013 and you made gifts in 2012 in excess of that amount, will the IRS try to recapture the difference from your beneficiaries (a concept known as a “clawback”) or will your gift be grandfathered in? Finally, what if Congress ends up extending the $5,120,000 estate tax exemption in 2013 and beyond? You will have spent time, effort, and money – and given away significant assets – for possibly no benefit.

Although there are potential problems to making gifts in 2012, it is worth considering these possibilities if your estate is likely to exceed $1,000,000 upon death. As such, I am holding a free seminar about this topic entitled, “Opportunities and Clawbacks – Taking Advantage of the Once-in-a-Lifetime 2012 Estate/Gift Tax Rules,” on Saturday, October 27, 2012 from 10:00 to 11:30 am at 700 Jewell Avenue, Pacific Grove. The seminar will cover these unique 2012 issues but will also cover general advanced estate planning gifting strategies that will always be relevant regardless of what happens to the estate tax exemption. Please RSVP at 831-920-0205.


Friday, September 21, 2012

Saving Some of the Toothpaste in the Tube

When closing a decedent’s estate, the Trustee or Executor (commonly referred to as the “Fiduciary”) is often eager to distribute all of the assets of the estate to the beneficiaries.  However, typically there are expenses that trickle in after the bulk of the estate has been distributed.  This can leave the Fiduciary in a bind if he/she has already “squeezed all of the toothpaste out of the tube” and has nothing left to pay the last expenses.  

To avoid the necessity and awkwardness of the Fiduciary having to ask the beneficiaries to pay their shares of the last expenses, the Fiduciary should explore whether to hold back a “reserve” (a small amount of cash) prior to making the distributions of the estate to the beneficiaries.  The idea is to retain enough cash to be able to pay final expenses without having to ask all of the beneficiaries to “chip in.”

In calculating the amount of the reserve, the Fiduciary should consult his/her tax preparer to determine whether the estate will be required to file a tax return and whether the estate will be required to pay taxes.  If a tax return will be required, the Fiduciary should ask the tax preparer to estimate the cost of the tax preparation fee and the amount of the tax, if any.

The Fiduciary should also consult his/her attorney to determine what the final legal fees will likely be and whether there will be any additional fees such as recording fees or filing fees. 

If the estate is in a position to be closed within a year of the decedent’s death, there is the possibility that there could be unknown creditors of the decedent who later make claims against the estate.  Although the Probate Code specifies that in such a case the beneficiaries would be personally responsible for their pro rata share of the debt, it would be helpful and more efficient if the Fiduciary had the cash to be able to resolve these issues.  The likelihood of creditors making valid claims against the estate after the distribution of the bulk of the assets should therefore also be considered in calculating the amount of the reserve.

Once the amount of the reserve is determined, the Fiduciary should prepare an accounting to the beneficiaries showing an inventory and appraisal of the estate, the Fiduciary’s proposed fee, the planned distribution amounts to each beneficiary, and the amount of the reserve.  Because the concept of a reserve might not be familiar to most beneficiaries, it is often a good idea to include an explanation of its purpose.  Once the beneficiaries approve of the final accounting, the Fiduciary may distribute the assets minus the reserve to the beneficiaries.  

The Fiduciary should hold on to the reserve until he/she is absolutely certain that all final expenses have been paid.  Generally, this would be after the final tax returns have been filed, after final attorney fees have been paid, and after at least one year has passed since the decedent’s date of death.  The balance of the reserve can then be distributed to the pro rata to the beneficiaries of the estate. 

Although it is a rather simple concept and ultimately does not have a significant bearing on the amount of each beneficiary’s share at the time of distribution, keeping a small amount of “toothpaste in the tube” prevents potential headaches for the Fiduciary and allows efficient resolution of final expenses.


Monday, September 17, 2012

Crucial Steps in Closing a Trust Administration

A trustee has many responsibilities in settling a decedent’s estate.  The trustee must locate all of the beneficiaries, interpret the terms of the trust, send out required notices, take an inventory and appraise the assets, pay final expenses, satisfy all remaining creditors, pay all taxes, and finally distribute the assets to the beneficiaries in accordance with the terms of the trust.

While it certainly is easier and faster than handling a formal probate, trust administration is often a lot more work than one might imagine.  In the midst of handling all of these responsibilities, the trustee is often under pressure from the beneficiaries who do not share the trustee’s responsibilities to distribute the assets “as soon as possible,” not understanding all the steps the trustee is legally required to take.  

By the time the trust is in a position to be closed and the assets are ready to be distributed, the trustee is often anxious to “be done” with the duties of trustee.  However, it is crucial that the trustee follow very specific steps in distributing the estate in order to be fully discharged of the responsibilities as trustee.

The California Probate Code requires the trustee to give the beneficiaries an accounting at the close of trust administration.  The Probate Code requires the accounting to include specific details and to be presented in a certain way.  Often the formal accounting required by the Probate Code is more detailed than beneficiaries feel necessary and requires additional time and expense to complete, right when both the trustee and the beneficiaries are ready for the trust administration and its expenses to be over.  Ignoring the formal accounting, however, is not without peril as the trustee will forever be “on the hook” to the beneficiaries.  

The middle ground in this situation is for the trustee to give the beneficiaries a summary report of the financial aspects of the trust administration such as the date of death values of the trust’s assets, the current values of the trust’s assets, the trustee’s proposed fee, and the planned distribution amounts to each beneficiary.  The trustee can then request that the beneficiaries accept the summary report and waive in writing the necessity of a formal accounting.  This assures that the beneficiaries are provided with key information and it also absolves the trustee of the duty to prepare a formal account while simultaneously saving time and unnecessary expense.  

Once the beneficiaries all approve of the report and waive in writing the necessity of a formal accounting, the trustee may distribute the trust’s assets.  The trustee should require that the beneficiaries sign a receipt for their share of the trust so that there is no doubt that the beneficiaries received their full distribution.

The trustee might wish to retain a certain amount of cash as a “reserve” to handle final expenses that might be necessary such as taxes and tax preparation fees.  The amount of the reserve should be reflected in the trustee’s report.  

While most trustees and beneficiaries (and believe it or not, their attorneys as well) are eager for the trust administration to conclude, making sure that each final step is handled correctly is crucial in fully relieving the trustee of all responsibilities and preventing future disputes related to the trust administration.  As tempting as it might be by that point, it is never a good idea for the trustee to shortcut the process at the end in an attempt to save a few weeks of administration.  Handling the trustee’s responsibilities properly at all stages is always the best course of action.


Friday, August 24, 2012

Straightening Out an Upside-down Estate

One of the main responsibilities of an Executor or Trustee (“Fiduciary”) is to pay off all of the decedent’s debts and then distribute the balance of the estate to the beneficiaries. The assumption is that the decedent will die leaving more assets than debts. In the current economy, this is not always the case. If an estate has more debts than assets, the Fiduciary has a difficult – and sometimes thankless – task.

When an estate’s debts exceed its assets, debts of the United States or of California (i.e., unpaid taxes) have top priority. After those debts are satisfied, the California Probate Code divides the remaining debts into certain classes as follows:

1.  Expenses of Administration: this class typically includes attorney fees, Fiduciary fees, and out-of-pocket costs necessary in order to settle the estate (i.e., recorder fees, bank fees, etc.).

2. Obligations Secured by a Mortgage, Deed of Trust, or other Lien: this class includes the outstanding mortgage on a real property or other debt that is secured by collateral. This category is limited to the asset that is held as collateral. If the secured debt exceeds the value of the asset that is held as collateral, the excess debt will fall into the classification of “General Debts” as described below.

3. Funeral Expenses.

4. Expenses of Last Illness.

5. Family Allowance: this is a term of art as defined by the Probate Code that allows certain individuals (such as the parent or minor children of the decedent) a certain amount out of the estate to handle their personal expenses. The amount varies by the individual’s circumstances and is subject to Court approval.

6. Wage Claims.

7. General Debts: this class includes all debts not previously classified.

The Fiduciary’s responsibility is to determine which debts fall into which of the aforementioned classes and then to pay the debts of each class in the order listed above. There is no priority of debts within the same class and no debt of any class may be paid until all those of prior classes are paid in full. For example, the Fiduciary must not pay any debt that falls within the class of “Expenses of Last Illness” until all the debts classified as “Funeral Expenses” and all debts of the prior classes are paid.

If the assets of the estate are insufficient to pay all the debts of any class in full, each debt of that class must be paid a proportionate share.

Not only must the Fiduciary deal with dividing the debts into the various classes, but the Fiduciary also must deal with creditors who might be unhappy with the fact that they either won’t be satisfied at all or will only be given a small fraction of what they are owed and heirs/beneficiaries who are unhappy that they won’t be receiving anything from the estate.

Historically, the silver lining in an insolvent estate was the fact that the creditors were generally limited to the value of the estate and could not pursue claims against family members of the decedent. However, as a recent case from Pennsylvania dramatized, nursing homes and other health care providers might attempt to pursue claims against family members of a decedent who left an insolvent estate based on “filial responsibility laws” which are on the books in California but have rarely been enforced. This is potentially a new “wild card” that could dramatically reshape the settlement of insolvent estates.


Monday, August 20, 2012

Making Your Intent Clear

Ensuring that your wishes are carried out after your death is the main purpose of estate planning. Figuring out exactly what your wishes are is the first step. The process often involves brainstorming, weighing a variety of goals and practical considerations, and finally shaping a particular plan. Once you have figured out your wishes, expressing those wishes in a clear manner can often be more challenging than you might think.

When planning for young children or grandchildren, clients often become concerned that their beneficiaries will foolishly spend their inheritances before they become mature enough to properly manage their finances. Clients will commonly say, “Until my beneficiary is 30 years old, I only want her to be able to use her inheritance for education.” While this appears to be a well thought out and clear idea, upon further review, a great deal of ambiguity remains.

What does “education” mean? Does it include vocational training or is it limited to academic pursuits? Is it limited to tuition or can it include books, room, and/or board? How do internships or study abroad programs factor into the equation?

What appeared to be clear in the client’s mind is vague and open to debate once it is time for the trustee to respond to requests from the beneficiary for use of the trust assets. These practical questions might be issues that the client never even considered. Without more detailed instruction, a simple clause can be open to great debate which can result in litigation.

The beneficiary might insist that “education” necessarily includes a backpacking trip to Europe and tuition for an underwater basket weaving class. The trustee, worried about liability, might insist that “education” is strictly limited to tuition for a Bachelor’s degree. If they end up in court, the intent of the client will be the key factor.

It is therefore a good idea to flesh out in detail exactly what you are thinking when you express your ideas in your estate planning. Sometimes a separate writing that provides guidelines to the trustee can be very helpful. The guidelines can serve as an explanation as to how the trustee should interpret the instructions of the trust. An experienced trustee will readily agree that anything that sheds light on the thinking behind your estate planning documents can be very helpful in understanding how to carry out your wishes.


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KRASA LAW assists clients with Estate Planning, Elder Law, Pet Trusts, Asset Protection, Special Needs Planning and Probate / Estate Administration in Pacific Grove, CA(93950), Monterey (93944, 93940, 93943, 93942), Salinas (93901, 93905, 93906, 93907), Hollister (95023,95023) Pebble Beach (93953), Carmel By The Sea (93921), Seaside (93955) and Carmel (93923, 93922) in Monterey County and San Benito California.

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